Inorganic Nitric Oxide Metabolites Participating in NO-Dependent Modifications of Biopolymers
N. V. Beda# and A. A. Nedospasov
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Institute of Molecular Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, pl. Kurchatova 2, Moscow, 123182 Russia
Biogenous nitric(II) oxide (NO), the higher nitrogen oxides (NO2, isomeric N2O3 and N2O4, etc.) that are NO-derived in vivo, and the products of their transformations are active compounds capable of reactions with biopolymers and low-molecular metabolites. The products of these reactions are often considered to be various NO-dependent modifications (NODMsN). nitrated, nitrosylated, nitrosated, and other sNODM play key roles in the regulation of the most important biochemical processes. In this review, we briefly discuss the metabolic reactions of nitrogen oxides that supply active intermediates for NODMs, the NODM reaction products, and some mechanisms of NODM reparation that allow the recovery of chemically intact biopolymer molecule from a modified (chemically damaged) NODM. For example, residues of 3-nitrotyrosine arising due to the NODM reactions of proteins can be reduced to unsubstituted Tyr residues as a result of alternative NODM reactions through intermediate diazotyrosine derivatives. The heterogeneity of a medium in vivo is an important factor controlling the proceeding of NODM reactions. We showed that many processes determining NODM efficiency proceed differently in the heterogeneous media of organisms and in homogeneous aqueous solutions.
Key words: diazo signalling , micellar catalysis, nitration, nitroso compounds, nitrosylation , nitrotyrosine , peroxynitrite
Received April 13, 2005; in final form, June 27, 2005
Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry 2006, 32 (1):1-22